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International 50th Foundry Conference Portoroz

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Portoroz 201050th anniversary of the slovenian foundry industry
it is already the 50th conference of the slovenian foundry industry which took place from 8. to the 10. september, directly at the adria sea in Portoroz.

Approximately 240 participants and almost 100 from 19 different countries as Germany, India, Sweden, and Italy attended the anniversary conference.


Prof. Dr. TrbižanProf. Dr. Trbižan presented in addition to the conference an exposition of 20 high class exhibits as for example the Slovenian State emblem, which was casted with all details of the original bobbin lace in bronze. Many of those exhibits are in close relationship to the Slovenian Foundrymen Society.


This year was the first time where a program for companions of the participants was offered. A highly interesting visit of the caves of Škocjan, which are a part of the UNESCO world since 1986, had to be cancelled due to the lack of the necessary amount of attending people. For next year we hope to have another opportunity to go there with more companions of the participants.

Six plenary speeches and 28 speeches have been held, separated in sections  as “cast iron and casting technology” and “non-ferrous alloys”, in English and also completely in written form for all participants.

Prof. Dr. A.Križman / University of Maribor (2nd right on table), Prof. Dr. P. Mrvar / University of Ljubljana (1st right on table) and M. Jan-Blažič / Slovenian Foundryman Society (right)The M. Sc. Mirjam Jan-Blažič / Slovenian Foundryman Society (left) and Direktor i.R. Bergrat h.c. Dipl.-Ing. Erich Nechtelberger (right) at the presentation of the gift from the Austrian Foundry AssociationThursday-Evening  was used, as every year, for human relations and the exchange of professional matters on two boats along the Slovenian coast up to Triest (Italy) and back again. As a sponsor for the fish-dinner this year came up <link http: _top external-link-new-window castings>LTH Castings from Slovenia.

Afterwords all guests could chill out the evening at a ceremony on the occasion of the 50 th anniversary of the conference on the patio above the Casino “Riviera” having a splendid buffet and a show with fantastic belly-dancers.

Autor: Mr. Alexander Mayerhofer


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  • Impact of hybrid and electro mobility on the Foundry Industry - Changes and new Challenges (L.Kniewallner, M.Dzinic, I.Papadimitrou, Georg Fischer Automotive AG)
    The worldwide discussion on global warming caused by an increase in CO2 levels in the atmosphere has resulted in a wide range of actions which also impact the automotive industry. In order to meet the targeted reduction of the fleet consumption, downsizing, down speeding, hybrid and electric power train systems are key words and technologies for the carmakers and their suppliers, in order to secure sustainable business success. In pursuing this goal, each automotive manufacturer is implementing concrete projects aimed at reducing C02 emissions. The diversity of power train concepts is governed by regulations and subject to growing pressure by legislations and society. Both automotive manufacturers and suppliers need to develop new assessment know-how. Whether or not the prognoses regarding the expansion of hybrid and e-mobility will eventually materialise, is in fact just a matter of the time scale, no longer a question of whether or not this will happen at all.
    Cast components have always played an important role in the construction of automobiles. Be it iron or light metal casting - with time their proportion in the vehicle has risen at a steady rate. Besides power train and chassis components, more and more body parts possess some potential. Triggered by the changes through hybrid and e-mobility the question is: "What are the opportunities and challenges facing the foundry industry?" Aside from the main product segments which are chassis, power train and body and which have been discussed above, a focus must also be on the impact on conventional cast part products.
    Depending on the level of hybridisation, using chassis parts, crankshafts and exhaust manifold as examples, approaches to and challenges facing process and material development will be identified. As a consequence, on the one hand the requirements on ICE-components are rising because of downsizing; on the other hand they are dropping because of expanded fields of application, e.g. in range extender engines. Future potentials arising from electric power train systems will also be discussed.

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  • Global status of the European Diecast Industry (R. Meier, Technical Consultant casting-and Forging Technologies)
    For 1980 many changes have taken place within the Foundry Industry, mainly driven by the Automotive Industry as main customers. This could be observed especially in the High Pressure Die Cast area, at which components and machi- nes became bigger and bigger and development -and cycle times and costs per piece smaller and smaller. These changes have occured in the regions of the world with different speeds and goals depending on traditions, financial resour- ces or technological transfer of global companies .
    These differences are shown in this presentations by an evaluation system which is based on a lot of factors as for examples factory design, planning methods or process know-how. By that especially the position of Central Europa was worked out in comparison to the regions Rest of Europe, Japan, North America, Asia, Latin America and Russia. Here especially at the product complexity, process technology, production capacity and costs per kg big differences could observed.
    The result of these benchmark investigations should not be only the deter- mination of the actual position, but also the base of future objectives and action plans.
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  • Impacts of global crisis and recession on the Foundry of Slovenia (M. Debelak, M. Jan-Blazic, V.Pirih)
    In 2009 business environment suffered substantial alterations due to global crisis and recession. Fall in gross domestic product (GDP) year-on year was noted in the volume of 7.8% that is substantially more than in other EU member states. It has to be stressed that this above-average fall occurred also on the grounds of comparison to previous high above- average growth. This fall has been noted in the first three quarters of 2009, growth of 0.1% was noted in the last quarter. All industrial branches and within them also foundry met with the crisis and recession fate.
    62 companies were engaged in the foundry activities in the year 2009 that is fifteen less than in 2008. There were 3 large companies, 8 middle-scale companies and 51 small and micro companies. In 2009 foundry companies managed to achieve revenue in the amount of 278 million EURO. This revenue is by 40.1% lower than the one generated in 2008, whereas large companies contributed to the revenue with their 52.8% share, middle-scale companies with 31.7% and small and micro companies with their 15.5% share.
    The foundry companies employed 3632 employees that means 33% less in comparison with the year 2008. Large companies employed 1945 employees, middle-scale 1143 and small and micro companies employed 544 employees.
    Net proceeds of sale generated by the foundry companies amounted to 269.8 million EURO that is less by 39.7% as the one achieved in 2008. The companies had for 274.9 million EURO expenditure and in comparison with the year 2008 this expenditure was lower by 42.5%. Share of material costs in expenditure was 60.7%, labour costs 25.2%, cost wages and salaries 17.3% and depreciation 7.7%.
    Alteration of net profit per employee in the foundry activities is also shown, as well as alteration of net loss per employee.
    The foundry companies achieved 96.9 million EURO of value added being by 16.4% lower than the one in 2008. Value added conversion is showing that the average generated value added per employee in the amount of 26.686 EURO is higher by 8.6% in comparison with that one in 2008.
    In 2009 there was only one bankruptcy of one foundry (middle-scale foundry) - member of the Slovenian Foundrymen Society.
    Statistics of physical volume of the foundry production in Slovenia for the year 2009 as performed and monitored by the Slovenian Foundrymen Society shows that 197.496 tons of all types of castings were produced in total. This figure is lower by 35% in comparison with the year 2008. The largest drop was notified in nodular grey cast iron (53%) and the lowest one in cast steel (20%).
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  • Development of high preformance al alloys (P. Schuhmacher)
    In this 2010 year the business environment provides the conditions for limited economic growth. For the foundries it is very important that last year prices of single raw materials on the world market were reduced and lower prices of all kinds of energy as well as of non- energy products were noted. Rapid economic recovery in Germany has a favourable impact on the economy in Slovenia. The Slovenian economy is closely connected with the German one especially the foundries are closely related to the German automobile industry. This year volume of orders delivered to the foundries significantly improved. The state itself has to make efforts in eliminating certain deviations that imperil and reduce the competition of economy.
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  • Development of Foundry alloys and casting technologies (A. Krizman, P.Mrvar, J.Medved)
    Increased application of light weight structures in the automotive industry requires on one side a smart application of topological optimised structures and on the other side high performance A1 alloys. The present work concentrates on the development of A1 alloys. The demands on the development of novel A1 alloys are result of a continued down sizing of engine components and increased use of cast alloys as structural components in power train and space frame uses. In engine applications increased demands are placed on high temperature performances. These demands cannot be fulfilled with conventional Al-Si alloy which however show excellent technological casting properties such as filling and low hot tearing tendency. Thus key to the development of novel high performance alloys is not only increased mechanical properties but also acceptable casting performance. A second line of development is to minimise energy usage during heat treatment of A1 alloys while still obtaining optimised mechanical properties. The present work is reporting on the advances made at the University of Leoben and the Austrian Foundry Research Institute.
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  • Complete master of the complex casting production in high pressure die casting Foundries (P.Mrvar, M.Petric, J.Medved)
    Compared to other producing processes the casting enables an economical production of shapely optimal construction elements. Advantages are manifested above all in: rate of manufacturing, designing of products, wide choice regarding size and weight, integration of many functions in one part, shaping close to final measures, combination of inserted parts of different materials, high degree of reproducibility and recycling capability. In the foundry industry the development of new materials and proceedings is very rapid and innovatory. The development of casting materials is first of all pointed at the search for combinations between mass density, strength, ductility, machinability, corrosion resistance and adequate casting characteristics. The principal foundry alloys are grounded on bettered properties of gray-cast iron, steel castings and aluminium, magnesium, titan, copper and zinc alloys. The mechanical properties are tried to be better by heat treatments handling, with increasing emphasis on the dispersion and precipitation hardening. With the materials on iron basis the foundry production has in overall the following quantity shares: gray iron with lamellar graphite 55%, gray iron with spheroidal graphite 39%, steel castings 5%, malleable cast iron 1%. At the non-ferrous alloys these shares are: aluminium alloys 78%, copper alloys 9%, zinc alloys 7%, magnesium alloys 5%, other alloys (Ni, Pb, Sn etc) 1%.
    The technology reflects the increasingly computerized support throughout the process chain and the integral development of products. The focus is on the overall management process, including all contemporary measuring and controlling methods. The essence of development is to ensure optimal correlation between microstructure and operties . That is why the important emphasis is laid on grain refinement, structure modification, porosity diminution, as well as casting and solidification simulation.
    Within the developmental possibilities the importance is acquired with the production of joined castings (for example Al + Mg), composite materials (metal + non-metallic parts), hybrid components (steel sheet + Al compound casting). Among the proceedings a rapid progress is made by: precision casting, vacuum casting, low pressure die and sand mould casting, squeeze casting, high pressure die casting.
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  • Simulation and production technology to locally strengthen casting out of ductile iron by inductive hardening (W. Menk, S. Tunzini, T. Rieck, C. Honsel, K. Weiß)
    In contemporary high pressure die casting (HPDC) foundries the mastery of each sequence in production cycle is the most important, where the strive to reliable master, as well as planning of composed molten metal, pouring and solidification process, ejection of castings, transport to the cooling place and cutting of gating system ware done.
    For castings with a very complex geometry and dimensional accuracy, the appropriate planning of pouring and feeding elements according to a heat economy of casting, rapid tooling and prototyping and then reliable manufacturing which include the mastery of all the edge conditions in the process chain.
    In the paper the example of virtual analyses of casting from A1 alloy will be deal with chose of appropriate foundry technology, calculation of computer simulation of casting process which include the filling process of cold chamber and casting cavity, model description of three phases at HPDC, streaming of molten metal, solidification with considering the temporary air gap formation between the casting and tool, formation of stress and relaxation of it into deformations in a each sequence, when the tool is opening, at ejection occurred, cooling in water or on air and after cutting of the gating system. Additionally compose of the molten alloy with recycled procedure of circled alloy and planed grain refinement which correspond the individual investigated casting will be analyzed. With presented developed models the calculation of the grain size and largeness of microstructure constituents in the real casting, where the cooling rate mainly depend from local wall thickness and placing the cooling and heating system is possible to exactly determined.
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  • Core blowing simulation (V. Krutis, M. Kovac, Z. Brazda)
    A lot of innovations in molding and casting technology and also simulation techniques have made ductile iron more and more competitive and competes meanwhile against steel forgings even. A successful substitution of steel forgings for example is the wheel carrier for a high volume car with the Georg Fischer new ductile iron material 'SiboDur', a ductile iron family with high strength and high elongation at the same time. But there is still a high potential for ductile iron castings to substitute steel forgings, especially in the automotive industry. One example is the crankshaft for the engine: Quite a lot of gasoline engines are equipped with ductile iron crankshafts, but for instance most of the diesel engines are still running with forged steel cranks. The reason is mostly the belief of design engineers that it is not possible to get similar fatigue limit with castings compared to forged steel. This belief may often be correct, but using local strengthening technologies, such as roller burnishing of bearing fillets or inductive hardening of highly stressed areas can raise the fatigue limit of casted crankshafts dramatically. The paper presents studies which show that using the right ductile iron material and optimized roller burnishing conditions can raise the fatigue limit of cast crankshafts to values even higher than forged steel ones (material 38MnVS6). But even quenched and tempered forged steel crankshafts are in the focus to be substituted by castings. It is well known that ductile iron also can be induction hardened, but the induction hardening of ductile iron is still an empirical technology. This leads to the second part of the paper: In a cooperation of Georg Fischer and RWP a research project was carried out to develop a simulation technology to predict the residual stresses in a cast crankshaft due to induction hardening under different conditions. The results are very encouraging and enable us today to predetermine the induction hardening conditions to get optimized fatigue behavior of ductile iron crankshafts. Of course, the findings can also be used for other applications than crankshafts.
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  • Savings on new sand cost with return sand regeneration (F.Jezersek)
    Today's dynamic world requires quick responses to customer needs. New processes and technologies are designed, verified and implemented to the casting production in order to comply with demand of higher casting quality. Numerical simulation responds to these changes by new physical models creation. The simulation of metal flow and casting solidification is quite well know, but also the next technological items as cores, molds plays a crucial role in achieving a sound casting. Core box design has traditionally been achieved by a trial and error method which can lead to a lengthy and expensive development for core production.
    ESI Group as a world-leading supplier and pioneer of digital simulation software for prototyping and manufacturing processes has developed and tested such a new model for coldbox sand blowing and gassing. Using of this module has become a reality in the foundries and is a powerful tool in optimization of vent position and process parameters. This article takes a look at the model validation and simulation of real cores in cold box process including elimination of core defects. Analyze of sand mixture flows in the cavity of core box allows to user better process understanding. Process understanding has significant importance in finding a proper solution.
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  • Contribution to fight against hot tearing (R. Doepp)
    Companies are today under big pression of concurence. With reclamation process of return sand we can achieve big reduction of costs for sand with the same quality.
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  • On examination of influencing factors on characteristics of heavy castings made from compacted graphite iron (D. Pihura, D. Novic)
    Hot tearing tendency is promoted by many factors, mainly geometrical and metallurgical influences.
    As can be seen from metallographic observations, hot tearing tendency is promoted by exogeneous structure of primary phases. Therefore, fight against hot tearing means prevention of exogeneous structure and promotion of endogeneous structure.
    Systematical investigations about 50 years ago in Aachen on the base of blackheart malleable cast iron concentrated on the influence of carbon content, charge material (pig iron and steel), melt conduct and melt treatment on the crystallisation of primary austenite. A first necessary step to evaluate the very different structures was to develop a classification chart. It contains 6 types from quite exogeneous to quite endogeneous dendritic structure.
    The very interesting and still actual results will be presented and discussed in detail, together with practical applications up today.
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  • Effect of rotation speed and holding time on AI-7Si alloy cast by rapid slurry formation(RSF) Techique (L. Ratke, A. Sharma, D. Kohli)
    During examination on pilot scale on blocks or suitable parts it was confirmed that it was possible to obtain expected properties or characteristics of castings in accordance with literature data, at the first suitable mechanical properties in accordance with graphite inclusion shapes. On the base of pilot plant scale results, as well as computer modelling, it was possible continue to perform some more work on industrial scale and obtain more exact review of theoretical considerations and practical results, as well as to compare known data. In same time it is possible to estimate obtained results with characteristics of another grade of cast iron as ductile or lamellar cast iron and continue work on industrial scale. Ductile cast iron is excellent casting material, but which is not such good for heavy casings as mould taken representative castings, as or similar massive cast products for machine and another industries, because of appearance of cracks at the first pouring and of some more shortcomings at castings. Work with produced moulds with compacted graphite shows that it is obvious improvement of number of pouring of compacted graphite moulds from 30 to 85 % comparing to mould made from lamellar graphite cast iron, dependently of weight. So it is possible to expect longer life of other machine parts made from same material. Such results are confirmed by model examination and on platform application in some iron and steel works. In same time obtained laboratory results are in good agreement with some results found in literature. In a spite of mentioned shortcomings of mentioned representative castings, some customers are interested in ordering casting for mentioned purposes from ductile iron castings. Continuation on examination on that matter indicate that, for not too much different content of elements of mentioned iron castings, appears difference in comparing calculated and obtained mechanical properties, because of influence of type, form, distribution and size of graphite inclusions into cast iron castings. Performed examination and results enable to change mould construction, lowering of moulds weight, as well as changing of construction configuration used parts or throwing away connecting bottom plate. In next phase with improvement and stabilisation of technology parameters through drafting own technological norms and standards and by their application, it would be possible to check production of other large castings from compacted graphite cast iron.
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  • The effect of strengthening ceramic elements on the properties of cu-based composite materials (J.W. Kaczmar, K. Granat, K. Pietrzak, K. Napolcha, E. Grodzka, J. Morgiel, M. Wojtkowiak)
    The experimental investigation consisted of casting Al-7Si alloy by rapid slurry formation(RSF) technique. The RSF process is based on the enthalpy exchange between at least two alloy systems having different enthalpies, with the aim of forming a semi-solid metal slurry. Thus, slurry with 0.3 solid fraction was made by this process. Prior to starting the experiment 0.01 wt.% SiB was also added in the melt for additional grain refinement. Stirring speed was varied from 800 to 1800 rpm and for each experiment. The samples were quenched in water at different time intervals; 0 min., 5 min., 10 min. and 15 min. It was observed that rapid heat extraction, nucleation and forced shearing action developed globular a-Al phase. It was also found that rotation speed, holding time and addition of Si-B grain refiner affected the average a-Al particle size. The coarsening of particles was experimentally investigated and also theoretically described by applying the LSW theory.
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  • ISO 9001 and calibration of measuring Equipment (P. Hafner)
    For the manufacturing of copper base composite materials the porous preforms characterized by the open porosities of 80, 85 and 90% made of SAFFIL alumina fibres were applied. The composite materials were manufactured by the squeeze casting method. The microscopic observations of composite structure revealed the homogeneous distribution of fibres in the matrix without cracks, and TEM investigations revealed good bonding. SADP pattern revealed the copper oxides forming at the interface ceramic fibres/matrix. The addition of SAFFIL fibres to the matrix resulted in the increase of Brinell hardness and the highest hardness of 120 HB was achieved for samples containing 10 vol. % of fibres. The tensile strength of composite materials strengthened with SAFFIL fibres increased with higher content of fibres and the maximum tensile strength of 227 MPa was achieved for the 20 vol. % of SAFFIL fibres. The preliminary investigations of wear showed that on the distance of 1 kilometer the mass loss of reinforced copper was 30 times smaller comparing to unreinforced copper, what indicates for good wear resistance of copper based composite materials. For the copper based composite materials strengthened with ceramic SAFFIL fibres the possible applications as sliding electrical contacts, friction elements and heat exchangers are forseen.
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  • Study of the influence ot repeated casting on the biocomplatibility of a dental gold alloy (D. Stamenkovic, M. Colic, A. Cairovic, I. Anzel, L. Zorko, R. Rudolf)
    In order to assure the accuracy of measurements, calibration of measuring equipment is essential for necessary reliability of measuring instrument and consequently also of measured result. Suitability of measuring procedure, maintenance, correction values from calibration certificate, uncertainty of measurement represent only few of parameters that need our attention before or during the measurement.
    Calibration represents series of operations to determine relations between value shown by measuring instrument or value represented by reference standard or reference material, respectively, and corresponding value realized with standards under certain conditions. In other words, calibration means determination of actual state of measuring instrument or meter. After performed calibration, owner of instrument obtains certificate of calibration that is essential document of calibration procedure while each instrument or meter is then equipped with calibration sticker.
    Calibration certificate must contain basic information on instrument or meter. In no case it is allowed to give doubtful results, it must not yield suitability of instrument or in any case evaluate results in sense of final suitability of non-suitability of instrument or meter. If intrinsic error of measuring instrument is relatively high, it must be taken into account during the measurement procedure, while uncertainty of measurement must be taken into account with limiting measurement values. Uncertainty of measurement must be in limiting cases in favour of final user unless agreement or regulations determine otherwise. Uncertainty of measurement must be taken in account by user as part of uncertainty of his procedure if this is demanded. It is advisable to perform more measurements to obtain "overall" record of state.
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  • Pad. Conr. manage energy consumtion - reduce costs (R. Tanneberger)
    The aim of this work was to study the effect of repeated casting procedures on the microstructure and biocompatibilty of a high noble Au dental alloy. The prepared samples of one- four- and eight times melted/cast Dentor S were used to study primary cutaneous irritation and sensibilization on experimental animals. The extract of the alloy prepared by conditioning the Dentor S samples in a cell culture medium was used to study the cytotoxicity on L929 cells. The elemental composition and surface changes of the alloy were examined by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and optical microscopy, respectively. Our results showed that repeated casting decreased the biocompatibility of Dentor S, manifested as decreased metabolic and proliferative activities of L929 cells and that the effect correlated with the number of melting/casting procedures. However, neither sample of Dentor S caused irritation and sensibilization on experimental animals.
    EDX showed that recasting slightly incresed the content of Au and Cu and slightly decreased the content of Pt, Pd and Zn. These changes correlated with the observations by optical microscopy.
    In conclusion, our results show that repeated casting of high noble Au alloy changes its microstructure and decreases the biocompatibilty, suggesting that this procedure should be avoided in dental practice.
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  • Microstructural characterization of austempered inuculated low carbon equivalent cast iron (A. Likhite, D.R. Peshew, S.U. Pathak)
    The transition from outdated load shedding to a new, parallel-differentiated load commutation process uncovers enormous productivity potentials.
    The Padicon system described below is the starting point for a modem, close to real-time Manufacturing Execution System (MES). MES enables detailed process controlling:
    Visualisation in all aggregation levels Online process monitoring Continuous quality control As well as manufacturing transparency across the board Long-term archiving Back-tracking of batches Data correlation
    To start with, we would like to give you an overview of the Padicon system, which will
    immediately help to reduce costs.
    Energy savings are achieved in the following ways:
    1. Load optimization (reduction of load peaks through innovative load commutation in the induction furnaces)
    2. Improvement of the load utilization period in the offer load profile
    3. Avoidance of no-load losses through real-time monitoring and current flow monitoring.
    The energy data recordings provide clear and well-structured information about energy consumption and therefore productivity.
    This is the only way to ensure continuous and long-term high output. Key words: energy saving, lower costs
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  • Overview and latest developments in the flaskless moulding technology (M. Colditz)
    In the present investigation, the response of inoculated low carbon equivalent irons (Carbon equivalents in the range of 2.6 - 3.21) to austempering heat treatment was investigated. The austempering was carried out at 250°C and 350°C for 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours. It was observed that the austempering treatment produces ausferritic microstructure similar to that present in ADI. An austempering treatment of 1 hour duration was found to be adequate to prevent the formation of martensite and austempering for 3 hours did not result into the disintegration of carbon stabilized austenite.
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  • Advanced technology of moulding - ecoform (M. Gnamus, A.Mikuz)
    At GIFA 1964 a DISAMATIC was exhibited for the first time. Nobody could realise how that event was influencing the daily world of the foundry men in their future. In the first years the moulding machine was supplied as a single machine. Based on the high potential of the new mould technology concerning the accuracy and speed a fast development depending on core setting, pouring and cooling was initiated.
    The continuous specialization of the foundries beginning in the mid 1970-ies made it necessary to supply many different mould chamber sizes for that type of moulding line. Beginning with the GIFA 1999 a complete new generation of vertical moulding machines was introduced at the market. Their optimized accuracy and speed are opening new application areas for that plant. The new opportunities request new solutions in setting cores and core packages; but also for pouring and the handling of the castings after cooling. Just two years later a horizontal parted flaskless match plate machine followed. This type of machine was developed for jobbing foundries with small and medium size series. Additional to the machine; a complete moulding line was developed; which will be able to produce up to 160 coreless moulds per hour and 120 moulds in the core setting modus. The lecture intends to inform about new solutions for the vertical technology and introduce the DISA MATCH technology.
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  • Computer - aided analysis of the structure of ductile iron and adi (A. Kowalski, J. Turzynski, M. Kuder)
    In years of prosperous market between 2006 and 2007, LITOSTROJ Steel Foundry made plan how to make more, faster and cheaper in the existing place of moulding shop. Analysis of production program was made and goal or long-term plan of production program was prepared. In cooperation with GUT Company (Germany) a completely new concept of production planning and scheduling and of moulding and casting technologies was set. Complete program of investments was done in three stages:
    • setting up a new moulding technology, a new casting technology, a new production planning and scheduling in the moulding shop,
    • preparing investments, installing equipment, making new moulding boxes and preparing other production means,
    • start up of production, implementation of new technologies, planning, logistics, workers.
    In the second half of 2008 the investment into ECOFORM process was completed, and production, in spite of minor troubles, successfully started. The following goals were achieved:
    • to cast castings into moulds with sand layer of 30 cm thickness - sand to casting ratio was 1.2:1,
    • cooling of casting was three times faster than with standard moulding process,
    • increasing capacity of foundry - in the existing place a greater number of castings was made, without construction of new buildings,
    • cost reduction of materials and labour,
    • improved quality of castings.
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  • Prediction of burn on and mould penetration defects (L. Tomek, V. Kosour)
    The structure of ductile iron and ADI was evaluated on a LUCIA (Laboratory Universal Computer Image Analysis) computer programme. The aim of the study was to develop algorithms for quick determination of graphite parameters and deriving mathematical relationships (empirical equations) between austenite content in ADI and mechanical properties (Rm, A5, HB) of this material. The structure of graphite in ductile iron was evaluated using cast ingots of different wall cross-sections, i.e. 3, 6, 10, 20, 25, 40, 50, 60, 75, 100 and 150 mm. The following parameters were determined in the investigations: surface .j-ea occupied by graphite, diameter of graphite spheroids, the number of spheroids falling to a -urface unit, and the nodularity (circularity) index. In ADI, the austenite content was measured after special coloured etching of the specimens, and mean length and thickness of he ferrite „needles" was determined. Studies were carried out on specimens austempered in •he temperature range from 280 to 390 °C, with temperature increase of every 10 °C. The results of the investigations were disclosed in the form of numbers, plotted graphs and photographs of microstructure. Microstructure was examined under the optical microscope :nd scanning microscope. Empirical equations allowing for relationships between the austenite content and austempering temperature, and between the values of Rm, A5 and HB :nd austenite content in the matrix were derived. The results of investigations enable quick aluation of graphite and mechanical properties of ADI basing on the measured structure Parameters. This enables corrections to be introduced to the technological process as early as it the production stage.
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  • Identification of under-surface defects in thin-walled castings of grey cast iron (B. Cuk)
    Presented paper deals with analysis of burn-on and penetration defects in steel castings. These .iefects are principally caused by local overheating of the sand mould or cores. Such verheating can cause liquid metal to strike at the mould surface and entrain into the surface f the mould. A method has been described to predict likely burn-on and penetration defect . nations as part of a standard casting simulation. The method is based on determining, from emulation results, the locations where the mould is above a certain critical temperature. The . ntical temperature is generally above the temperature at which the steel is fully solidified. By measuring the time periods during which these locations in the mould are above the critical _:nperature, burn-on and penetration defects can be predicted. Results from measuring . perature field of trial casting are described and consequently validation for this trial . ting was done too.
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  • Mathematical modeling of solidification process of continous casting steel slabs
  • An integrated measuring system for analyzing the deformation characteristics and thermal reactions of self-setting sands
  • V-Process: Foundries in internet and some bulgarian developments
  • Quantitative analysis of backscattered electron images as an aid for phase identification in cast alloys
  • Thermodynamic analysis of Al-Si-Ce-alloys
  • Numerical simulation of investment casting under counter pressure
  • Robotized removal of flashes and palletization of aluminium castings
  • Diagnostics and prevention of casting defects
  • Saving energy, cost and ressources in foundries by casting process simulation
  • New technical solutions - answer of die-caster of cas industry with progressing integration of car components and constantly risind demands for quality of these components
  • Case studies of innovative diecasting machines

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